Pseudoscorpion and beetle relationship questions

harlequin beetle-riding pseudoscorpion: Topics by az-links.info

Pseudoscorpions have been reported attached to insects from several orders, primarily Diptera but also beetles and including longhorned. Abstract. Thirty-two species of pseudoscorpions have been found co-existing with nine packrat (or woodrat) species of the genus Neotoma, and this association. But a free ride is by no means all that pseudoscorpions get from their in Panama have studied this peculiar relationship between beetle and.

Replicated experimental results always carry more weight than anecdotes, however, so I am delighted to share this recent paper: An actual peer-reviewed research paper about the poking, prodding, and pinching of black widows, confirming that they are reluctant to bite, even when threatened. Not only that, but the study provides some cool data suggesting that these spiders are capable of assessing risks to make decisions about how to defend themselves.

Here are the details: David Nelson and his coauthors wanted to know if black widows change their defensive behaviour depending on the level of threat they are faced with. Figure 1 from Nelson et al. During low-threat, single pokes, no bites occurred. Most spiders were completely non-confrontational, simply moving away, and only rarely flicking silk.

When the threat level escalated to persistent prodding, the spiders changed their defensive behaviour: Silk-flicking is much safer than biting for a black widow — she can maintain her distance while flinging sticky silk to subdue or slow down her attacker.

Biting, on the other hand, requires getting up close and personal with the assailant in order to pierce it with her tiny fangs, making her much more vulnerable to injury. Pinching also resulted in silk-flicking by about half of the spiders, and a few played dead. The next question the researchers wanted to answer was, do the spiders control whether and how much venom they inject when biting? In particular, they wanted to know if the amount of venom injected would vary depending on the type of threat in this case either pinching a leg with forceps, or grasping the abdomen with gloved fingers.

For this experiment they came up with a clever method to collect the venom: If a spider did bite, her fangs would pierce the membrane the number of holes would indicate how many times and any venom she expelled would be collected in the vial so the volume could subsequently be measured.

It turned out that more than half of all bites were dry no venom was detected in the vials. The black widows delivered more bites per target when they were pinched on a leg than on the abdomen, but more venom was released with each bite when the abdomen was pinched.

Being grasped by the body is a high-risk situation for a black widow because her abdomen is unarmored and vulnerable; a strong squeeze or puncture can be deadly.

Pinching a single leg, on the other hand, represents a non-life threatening attack. Spiders can autotomize drop their limbs and survive without significant ill effects. Examples of Commensalism Cattle Egrets and Livestock One of the popular examples of commensalism is the relationship between cattle egrets and livestock.

What bug has four legs on each side and two pincers?

The cattle egret is a common species of heron that is found in most regions of the world, and is mostly seen moving along with herds of cattle. This bird moves about in the pastures, and follows livestock such as cattle and horses.

The cattle egret eats up the insects hiding under vegetation close to the grounds, which get stirred up when the cattle walk through them. Orchids Growing on Branches of Trees Orchids belong to a family of flowering plants that form a commensal relationship with the trees. It is a well-known epiphytic plant that grows on the branches or trunks of other trees. Orchids are usually found in dense tropical forests.

They form their base of attachment on the branches of trees, and benefit by getting adequate sunlight and nutrition that flows down the branches. The orchids do not grow to a large size, and thus the host tree is not harmed in any way. Remora Fish and Sharks The remora, also called suckerfish, belongs to a family of ray-finned fish.

Examples of Commensalism for a Better Understanding of the Concept

It is a small fish growing up to a size of 1 to 3 feet. The remora forms a special relationship with sharks and other sea organisms like whales and turtles.

It has special suckers attached to its fins. It attaches itself to the bodies of sharks, and uses the shark for transportation as well as protection from its predators.

It also eats up the scraps of food that are left over when the shark eats its prey.

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Pseudoscorpions and Beetles Pseudoscorpions are scorpion-like insects that usually grow to less than one centimeter in length.

They are different from other types of scorpions in the way that they do not have stingers. Some species of the pseudoscorpions hide themselves under the wing covers of large insects like beetles.

This gives them protection from their predators, and also provides them a means of transportation over a larger area. Because of its small size and lack of sting, it does not harm the beetle in any way. Monarch Butterfly and Milkweed The Monarch butterfly is a well-known type of butterfly found commonly in the North American region.

At the larval stage, it forms a commensal relationship with certain species of milkweeds. The milkweeds contain a poisonous chemical known as cardiac glycoside, which is harmful to almost all vertebrates. The Monarch stores these poisonous chemicals in its body throughout its lifespan.

When a bird eats a Monarch butterfly, it finds it distasteful, and gets sick. Thus, they avoid eating it. Birds Following Army Ants Many birds form a commensal relationship with some species of ants like the army ants. A great number of army ants trail on the forest floor, and while moving, stir up many insects lying in their path.