SDT articulates a meta-theory for framing motivational studies, a formal theory Fourth, Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) elaborates the concept of is the relatedness need satisfied in high-quality relationships, but the autonomy. One thing that can create major problems in a relationship is a meta-emotion mismatch between partners. Interdependence is a hallmark of romantic relationships, and first-person plural pronoun use (“we-talk”) can indicate interdependence between.
The Type I worries are the worries about minor matters, finances, the future, etc. For example, a person might believe that worrying a lot might lead to a mental crisis. As a result, this person might worry about the worrying. However, these meta-cognitions are not always perceived negatively. Especially in the case of generalized anxiety disorder a patient often believes that worrying about the future might somehow prevent future catastrophes from happening.
This superstitious belief can then reinforce the Type I worry process and by doing so maintain the disorder. This is also consistent with the notion of emotional reasoning, i. Especially happiness has been the subject of many philosophies and religions throughout human history for millennia. It is a central theme of Buddhist teachings. Ultimate happiness, defined as Nirvana or Bodhithe state of everlasting peace, is the state free from suffering, anger and cravings.
Buddhists believe that this state is achieved through the Noble Eightfold Path that is often separated into three into basic divisions: Wisdom, ethical conduct, and concentration. Maintaining good friendships, are recognized as worthy goals, but are of secondary importance and are considered more mundane forms of happiness in Buddhist teachings. Similarly, the Chinese Confucian disciple Mencius, who lived in the 3rd century BC, taught that human nature was such that all people were born with the innate capacity to be good and happy.
In contrast, Aristotle a contemporary of Menciusposited that human must learn to acquire goodness and happiness through experience and practice. However, similar to Buddhist philosophy, he also proposed that happiness is the only state that humans desire for its own sake, as compared to friendships, wealth, etc, which serve other goals.
More than a millennium later, Saint Thomas Aquinas — laid the foundation of the modern view of happiness. The philosophical principle known as utilitarianism specifically states that we should always act in such a way that brings the most happiness and least unhappiness to oneself and other people.
Bentham even formulated an algorithm, the felicific calculus to estimate the degree of pleasure a specific action is likely to cause.
The variables that are considered in this algorithm include intensity and duration of the pleasure consequence, as well as how certain it is that the pleasurable consequence will happen, how quickly it will occur, how likely it is that the pleasurable consequence will be repeated in the future, and how many people will be affected by it.
Bentham treated all forms of happiness as being basically equal. In contrast, Mill argues that intellectual and moral pleasures are superior to the lower, more physical, forms of pleasures. This brief history into the enormous history of the philosophy of happiness should provide contemporary researchers a vast theory base for conducting psychological research on happiness. Psychological research on happiness of the 20th century has taught us that happiness is a very elusive state.
People quickly adapt to new technologies, fortune, fame, luxury, etc. Therefore, a person who wins the lottery will only report a high degree of happiness soon after winning, and considerably less happiness afterwards.
Given the importance and long history of positive emotions and happiness, surprisingly little has been done to incorporate techniques to specifically enhance positive emotions in treatment. The vast majority of research on emotions has dealt primarily with negative mood states, such as anxiety, depression and anger Beck, Some of the specific techniques to enhance positive affect include practices consistent with Buddhists meditation, such as loving-kindness and compassion meditation practices.
The aim of loving-kindness meditation is to develop an affective state of unconditional kindness to all people, whereas compassion meditation aims to cultivate a deep, genuine sympathy for people who encountered misfortune, together with an earnest wish to ease this suffering. These practices are consistent with Beckian and other CBT therapies see, for example, the discussion between Dr. Beck and the 14th Dalai Lama, http: The Influence of Culture on Emotions As noted by the Bastian, happiness is strongly influenced by cultural factors Hofsted, An important aspect in which cultures differ on is individualism and collectivism.
Collectivism emphasizes the interdependence of its members and places much value on harmony within the group rather than individual gains. In contrast, individual achievements and success receive a much greater reward and social admiration in individualistic societies. Social contacts serve different purposes in individualistic versus collectivistic cultures Lucas, Diener, Grob, Whereas in individualistic cultures, individual feelings and thoughts more directly determine behaviour, in collectivistic cultures, harmony within the group is the highest priority.
Therefore, well-being and happiness is more dependent on social contact in collectivistic than in individualistic societies.
The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness: a meta-analysis
Similar cultural differences are observed in the association between happiness and congruence i. People in collectivistic cultures, as compared to individualistic societies, are more likely to remain in marriages and jobs that they consider unhappy, possible because they attempts to conform to social norms and perhaps because people in troubled marriage and jobs are more likely to get support from others Diener, Interestingly, the most promising strategies to approach happiness and to enhance positive affect is rooted in Buddhist teachings, which is deeply rooted in a collectivistic culture.
Implications for Clinical Practice Culture and emotions should become an integral part of clinical practice. Both factors influence the delineation normal from abnormal and have a direct impact on treatment implementation. Conclusion Despite a very long tradition dating back to the ancient Greek and Buddhist philosophers, contemporary psychologists have only recently begun to systematically examine positive emotions, including happiness.
Positive and negative emotions interact, but are not simply the opposite of one another.
Psychiatry has similarly focused on reducing negative emotions, but very little effort has been made to raise positive emotions. Positive emotions are not simply the absence of negative emotions but also associated with vitality, well-being, and happiness. Happiness is closely associated with social support, which in turn, is closely associated with the cultural background. Social support is considerably more pronounced in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.
In general, social support and a general disposition to be happy are the primary predictors for positive emotions and happiness.
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Money, age, religion, marital status, etc. The social and cultural context is important for understanding positive as well as negative emotions.
For this reason, social expectancies play an important part in emotional experiences, including primary or secondary emotions. The time is ripe for contemporary psychologists to systematically examine positive emotions and to integrate these techniques to enhance them toward the path to happiness into Western individualistic culture.
Collaboration in multicultural therapy: Establishing a strong therapeutic alliance across cultural lines. Journal of Clinical Psychology: To be clear, not all aspects of nature are beneficial and life supporting. For example, Ulrich reviews instances of biophobia, or a biological preparedness to acquire fear of persistently threatening things such as snakes and spiders.
Nonetheless, he argues that evidence of biophobia simultaneously suggests the viability of evolved positive responses to the natural world. Evolutionary psychology more generally suggests that modern environments are not optimally suited to minds that evolved in different more natural environments e.
Thus, the specific biophilia hypothesis is not needed to retain the more general evolutionary idea of modern gaps in optimal human-environment fit. The gap in nature exposure between our early evolutionary environments and modern life is clear, and appears to be growing. For instance, children are spending less time playing in natural environments compared to previous generations Clements, ; Louv, ; England Marketing, and, in general, individuals from developed nations are spending almost all of their time indoors Evans and McCoy, ; MacKerron and Mourato, On a broader scale, for the first time in human history, more of the world's population now lives in urban instead of rural areas United Nations Population Division, This physical disconnection from the environments in which we evolved in may be having a detrimental impact on our emotional well-being as exposure to nature is associated with increased happiness Berman et al.
Beyond these trends, individuals vary along a continuum in their subjective connection to nature e. This individual difference, which will be referred to as nature connectedness, can be thought of as trait-like in that it is relatively stable across time and situations Nisbet et al. Nevertheless, one's subjective connection to nature can fluctuate e.
The Pursuit of Happiness and Its Relationship to the Meta-experience of Emotions and Culture
For the purposes of this paper, nature connectedness will be primarily conceptualized as a trait-like between-person difference. Consistent personality, attitudinal, behavioral, and well-being differences are found between those who strongly identify with and feel connected to the natural world compared to those who do not.
Individuals higher in nature connectedness tend to be more conscientious, extraverted, agreeable, and open Nisbet et al. Beyond personality traits, a greater connection to nature is also associated with more pro-environmental attitudes, a greater willingness to engage in sustainable actions, and increased concern about the negative impact of human behavior on the environment Mayer and Frantz, ; Leary et al.
Behaviorally, individuals higher in nature connectedness are more likely to spend time outdoors in nature and engage in a variety of pro-environmental behaviors e. Most relevant to this article, nature connectedness has also been correlated with emotional and psychological well-being e.
The purpose of the current research was to examine the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness in particular by conducting a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was completed by using correlations to examine the strength of the relationship but not necessarily if one variable causes the other.Relationships in the current Meta
An evolutionary history where it was apparently advantageous for our ancestors to be connected to nature and present day variability in nature connectedness appear to be contradictory ideas at first glance, but multiple explanations exist for how both can co-exist.
First, similar to how variability in other personality traits can be understood as being the result of cost and benefit trade-offs for fitness Nettle,so too can nature connectedness. For example, although conscientiousness is often thought of as a desirable and beneficial personality trait e.
Relatedly, there may have been ways in which being high in nature connectedness was not evolutionarily advantageous e. Taking another perspective, although we might have an innate predisposition to connect and identify with the natural world, it may be shaped by early childhood experiences and culture. Orr raised the idea that there may be a critical period during development where one must have positive experiences in nature in order to develop biophilic beliefs, feelings, and tendencies.
In addition, Kellert believed that biophilia could also be shaped by culture and experiences despite it being inborn. Supporting this, individuals who are higher in nature connectedness as adults recall spending more time in nature during their childhood compared to those who are not as connected to nature Tam, a. In addition, researchers have found that some groups e.
This research illustrates that developmental experiences and cultural context can have an influence on our evolved tendency to connect with nature. In sum, the biophilia hypothesis and individual differences in nature connectedness are not contradictory and can logically co-exist to examine and explain the human-nature relationship. A variety of concepts and measures have been developed in order to assess the human-nature relationship, including commitment to nature Davis et al.
Through the lens of interdependence theory Rusbult and Arriaga,Davis et al. Another clearly affective nature connectedness construct is emotional affinity toward nature, which was developed by Kals et al. Inclusion of nature in self was developed by Schultz who adapted the Inclusion of Other in Self scale Aron et al. With one of its items being the Inclusion of Nature in Self scale, connectivity with nature is defined by Dutcher et al.
The multidimensional construct of environmental identity, which Clayton likens to other collective identities that people have, is conceptualized as a feeling of connection to the natural environment and the belief that the environment is an important part of one's self-concept. Despite these different concepts and measures, they all appear to be assessing slightly different expressions of the same underlying construct i.
To support this, they are all highly correlated with one another and associated with other personality characteristics, measures of well-being, and environmental attitudes and behaviors in a relatively similar manner see Tam, a. For these reasons, no distinctions will be made between these concepts in this paper and nature connectedness will be used as an umbrella term for all of them.
The Pursuit of Happiness and Its Relationship to the Meta-experience of Emotions and Culture
A common line of research for many in this area is the investigation of the relationship between nature connectedness and well-being e. Well-being and the path to its attainment have traditionally and typically been conceptualized in one of two ways by philosophers and psychologists Grinde, From a hedonic perspective, well-being consists of the pleasantness of an individual's experiences and is achieved through the maximization of pleasure and the satisfaction of desires Kahneman, ; Fredrickson, Subjective well-being, another term for happiness in the hedonic approach, consists of an affective component i.
Specific measures used to assess hedonic well-being include the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Watson et al. In contrast, from a eudaimonic perspective, well-being is more about following one's deeply held values and realizing one's fullest potential Waterman, ; Ryff, As an example, psychological well-being is a construct that is thought to constitute eudaimonic well-being and consists of six facets of actualization including mastery, life purpose, autonomy, self-acceptance, positive relatedness, and personal growth Ryff and Keyes, Despite the contentious history between these two perspectives, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being indicators tend to be positively correlated and can influence one another implying that they are not mutually exclusive but overlapping and distinct King et al.
Furthermore, individuals high in hedonic and eudaimonic motives tend to experience the greatest amount of overall well-being and are considered to be flourishing Huta and Ryan, ; Forgeard et al. Nonetheless, due to its more targeted definition, established assessment tools, and common usage compared to the eudaimonic approach Kashdan et al.
Although events can influence an individual's present mood state, most have only a limited long-term impact on one's happiness Steel et al. In fact, subjective well-being tends to be relatively stable over time Diener and Lucas, ; Lyubomirsky et al. Relatedly, subjective well-being is associated with particular personality traits.
Similar to nature connectedness, subjective well-being is consistently positively associated with extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, but unlike nature connectedness it is also negatively correlated with neuroticism Steel et al. Lastly, subjective well-being can predict important life outcomes such as health, longevity, and disease Williams and Schneiderman, ; Lyubomirsky et al.