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Richie and I left a bit early and shared a seat on a Tokyo-bound train. Liza was a poet and translator and a friend of Richie. She would later edit his journals, which were published as The Japan Journals: After finding adjoining seats on the fairly crowded train, Richie and I continued conversing for a few minutes, then he said he had some work to finish before the next morning, and wondered if I would help him.
He pulled the preliminary galleys of a couple of articles out of his bag, passed a handful of pages to me, and told me to mark anything that needed fixing. For the next hour or so we engrossed ourselves in editing, oblivious to the mostly dark countryside puncutated by lit-up towns and stations. Shortly after this, I received a note from Richie congratulating me on the start of my Boundaries series of short-short stories in The Daily Mainichi. Both Lowitz and Richie were aware that I had written some stories for the Asiaweek Short Story Competition, including two 3rd place winners, and a story for Kyoto Journal.
And later I received an invitation from Suzanne Kamata to contribute to an anthology that she was preparing, which Richie would introduce. Lowitz, who also contributed to the book, was instrumental in putting Kamata and Richie together. Riggs is known by everyone who has been involved in writing about Japan, translating from Japanese to English, and editing English journals, magazines, and books related to Japan.
She is a co-founder in of Center for International Communication. CIC is the custodian of TJI's main staff reference library and it's back number stock, and continued to provide translation and other services to some of CSSC's clients. She was also one of the foundering members of the Society of Writers, Editors, and Translators, and became the most important editor of SWET Newsletter, to which I occasionally contributed, and invariably learned a lot from Lynne's red pencilling.
The novel was published in after serializtion in Asahi shinbun the previous year. See Mixed blood stories in fiction and poetry for my assessments of Yassa mossa and Musume to watashi, the later of which is Shishi's novelization of his life as the father of a daughter born to his French wife, who died when their daughter was still very young. In our conversations, Lynne and I -- who have little in common other than our interest in wordsmithing -- discovered that both her father and I had studied electrical engineering and worked in hospitals earlier in our lives.
When I said I was partly raised in Grass Valley, California, my mouth dropped after her mouth dropped and said her sister lived there -- it turned out not far from my sister -- and that she had visited her sister there a couple of times.
We wondered how many people in Japan had ever heard of Grass Valley, much less had family there, and marvelled how, against the odds, we had crossed paths. Top My language and literature teachers at Berkeley Here I will talk a bit about all the faculty who were involved in my language and literature education at Berkeley, not all of them language or literature teachers. After a period of service in the US Army as a medical corpsman and hospital laboratory technician, I returned to Berkeley in as an Oriental Languages major in the College of Letters and Science.
I studied both Japanese and Chinese, then also Korean, but concentrated on Japanese. In my senior year, I petitioned for an individual interdepartmental major in Japanese Studies that allowed me to combine courses in the OL and other departments in a way that allowed me to graduate in I satisfied the interdepartmental requirements with one foot in Anthropology and the other foot in Oriental Languages. This was not an off-the-shelf program but one I configured with the help of faculty members who agreed to support my petition to let me pursue such a program and oversee my work.
Wolfram Eberhard in Sociology and Delmer Brown in history joined the committee as outside examiners. De Vos was especially good at perceiving the complexities of human personality -- how individuals survive in their complex social environments. He worked at the "psychocultural" crossroads of anthropology and psychology and focused on conditions and behaviors that represent problems for individuals and societies -- racial and ethnic minorities, delinquency, suicide, poverty.
Wolfram Eberhard, who amassed much of his vast knowledge through years of immersion in life in Asia and other parts of the world, was a Sinologist and anthropologist in the Department of Sociology. I never took a course from him, but his door was open, he loved to tell stories, and he even corresponded with me on the subject of suicide in China and introduced me to others of like interest.
Frank Motofuji see below was instrumental in developing my interests in translating Japanese fiction. Delmer Brown, while administratively supportive, expected me to be an historian in his mold, which did not appeal to me, and so my contact with him was limited to a single seminar and my oral exams.
One of the more influential professors in my life at Berkeley, though I was not one of his students, and in fact never took a course from him, was Chalmers Ashby Johnsonwho was both a Japan and China specialist. Chalmers Johnson as he was generally known stayed as a professor in the Department of Political Science from after obtaining his MA and PhD in the department in and Johnson met and married Sheila K.
Johnson b when both were students, she an undergraduate in the Department of Anthropology, and he a freshly minted MA in studying for his doctorate. I did not know Sheila while I was at Berkeley, but became acquainted with her after I had settled in Japan, on occasions when she came to Japan with Chalmers. Chalmers had the image of a "conservative" opinionist while I was a student at Berkeley.
I knew other students who had taken a course or two from him, and who were "leftists", and as such they harbored grudges about what they considered his "rightist" views of Japan and China. My impression is that Chalmers became less conservative, and even a bit radical, later in his career, especially after he "retired" from UC Berkeley and took a chair at UC San Diego.
From about this point he began to allege that the imperial ambitions of the United States were a threat to the world. The United States maintained more than military bases, several of them in Japan.
He concluded that Okinawa was essentially an occupied territory. Sheila, writing a year after his death, began with this remark about his life Sheila K. In going through my husband's files, books, and papers after his death, I've been forcibly struck by two things. First, contrary to what many of his obituaries said, his writings and thoughts were remarkably consistent throughout his life. In other words, he was not a right-winger who became more liberal and outspoken as he got older. More than most people suspected, he was a radical all along, whose intellectual impulses were tempered only by his birth in the Depression year of and his determination to make a decent living without "joining the establishment.
I can testify to his maniacal enthusiasm. No room I was in with Chalmers ever fell silent. His lectures never induced sleep. If no one spoke, he kept talking until he provoked someone to speak.
As for Sheila's impression that her late husband was determined not to live without "joining the establishment", Sheila fails to mention that, in the late s and early s, he was a consultant for the CIA. She testifies to a streak of radicalism that apparently Chalmers cloaked for many years.
She stops short of claiming that he supported the Free Speech Movement inor the antiwar and ethnic studies movements mounted by the Third World Liberation Front and other groups from the late s. Her comment is "safe" because "radicalism" is a relative term.
Compared to "rightists" he could be called "radical". But I don't believe he ever qualified as a "radical" by Berkeley standards. As a well-informed political scientist and recognized expert on Communist China, he was totally familiar with leftist thought, but ideologically, he himself was nowhere near the left.
I would call him a "radical conservative" in the sense that he believed in the truer "conservatism" that eschewed the "radical imperialism" of America's "military-industrial complex". I was not one of Johnson's students, but since he was the chair of the Group in Asian Studies throughout the period that I was getting my MA and PhD under the auspices of the group, I occasionally attended his lectures.
He was instrumental in approving my petition for admission to a PhD program in the group, which did not then have an active program.
Despite my lack of interest in the field of political science, Johnson did not chase me out of his office when we finished the administrative business at hand.
He kindly engaged me in conversation about my studies, and responded to questions I had about his research and other activities. Karel and Chalmers knew of each other but had never met. The Johnsons visited Karel during their excursions to Japan, and at times they stayed at his home.
Karel's home was a sort of "embassy" and he was its resident ambassador. He hosted many small dinner gatherings for his circle of local friends, mainly journalists and scholars of various fields and nationalities, but also other people who might be in town, such as the Johnsons, or De Vos and his wife Suzanne, who also at times stayed at his home.
English was the lingua franca, but other tongues also wagged, including Japanese and Dutch. I interviewed Chalmers in his office at Berkeley for a magazine in Japan, and saw him a few times after he moved to San Diego, at Karel's home in Tokyo. We also exchanged some email concerning his Japan Policy Research Institute, which for a while I supported as a subscriber.
Aoki's blackboard calligraphy was elegant, and he could do it backhanded, while facing the class. Aoki also taught all the departmental courses on Japanese linguistics, and they were my favorites. He invited a number of colleagues in the linguististics department to give guest lectures in his Japanese linguistics seminars.
Matisoff met his wife, Susan Matisoff, at Harvard. She became a student of Keene at Columbia, then a professor of Japanese literature at Stanford University, and later joined the faculty of the Department of East Asian Language and Cultures at Berkeley.
Aoki's academic speciality, however, was North American Languages, and he was the foremost curator of the Nez Perce language.
Page 1 — Maui Shinbun — Hoji Shinbun Digital Collection
Aoki's work greatly interested me, because my mother was born and raised on the Nez Perce Reservation in the Clear Water area of Idaho, and Aoki had done his field work around some of the small towns in the same part of Idaho where I had spent parts of some summers when a boy.
My maternal great grandparents had homesteaded on the Nez Perce Reservation when it was opened for settlement in the late s. The menfolk in my ancestral families hunted, and the families traded with Nez Perce parties that passed their homesteads to and from the hunting grounds. The rise is so rapid that the submarine's bow rises high out of the water upon surfacing.
Before executing this maneuver, the submarine was required to go to periscope depth to check for ships or dangerous obstacles on the surface. After completing the high-speed maneuvers, standing orders called for the submarine to hold a steady course for three minutes to reestablish sonar contact, which had been disrupted by the high speed maneuvers, with any vessels in the area.
In this case, however, Waddle ordered the submarine to change course and go to periscope depth after holding the steady course for only 90 seconds. Pfeifer, entered the sonar room and observed the contacts on the sonar screens.
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- Ehime Maru and USS Greeneville collision
Pfeifer then stood in the doorway between the sonar and control rooms, but did not communicate any updated sonar information to Waddle in the control room. Because Greeneville had not maintained a steady, slow course for a sufficient amount of time, the sonar data available to the sonar operators did not show accurate information on Ehime Maru's range or bearing. At this time, Ehime Maru was about 2, yards 2.
Although sonar data began to more accurately depict Ehime Maru's true range and bearing at this point, this was not evident to the sonar operators.
Lieutenant, Junior Grade Michael J. Coen, the officer of the deckconducted a periscope search of the area and sighted no nearby ships.
Nana Maru San Batsu - Wikiwand
Since waves were washing over the periscope, Waddle ordered the submarine to go up another few feet. Waddle then looked through the periscope at the area where sonar had previously reported surface contacts. Although Ehime Maru was at this point heading toward Greeneville's location, Waddle failed to see the ship. Regulations mandated that Waddle conduct a three-minute, degree periscope scan before executing the emergency main ballast blow maneuver.
Waddle, however, aware that they were still behind schedule, conducted a to second, degree scan, noted that the haze was still present, and saw no ships in the vicinity. At the end of his scan, Waddle announced to the control room crew, "I hold no visual contacts. I swept the scope in low power, went to high power, looked, then panned to the right, saw the island [Oahu] I can only see the mountain peak, I can't see the mountains Then I could see an airplane taking off.
I looked over at the remote repeater [own-ship's data] and I saw the numbers and [thought] that looks right. That's where the guy is. Then went to low power and then turned to the right. And that's the only explanation that I can think of as to why I missed the vessel. Absorbed in trying to get a clearer picture on S's location, Seacrest failed to report the bearing and range of S Ehime Maru to Waddle during Waddle's periscope search, which Seacrest's monitors now showed was about 3, yards 2.
During Waddle's periscope search, Seacrest was busy operating other control room instruments and did not actively monitor his fire control displays. After the periscope search was over, and hearing Waddle's report of no visual contacts, Seacrest decided that his information for S was incorrect and manually respotted the S contact on his screen to a distance of 9, yards 8. One of them sat in the helmsman's chair and the other stood at the high-pressure air valve levers, under close supervision by Greeneville crewmen.
Oh no, there's been an error
After the two civilians had taken their positions, at The submarine began its rapid ascent toward the surface. Personnel aboard Ehime Maru heard two loud noises and felt the ship shudder from two severe impacts. Ehime Maru's bridge crew looked aft and saw the submarine broach the water next to their ship. Within five seconds Ehime Maru lost power and began to sink. As Waddle watched through Greeneville's periscope, Ehime Maru stood almost vertically on its stern and sank in about five minutes as the fishing ship's crewmembers scrambled to abandon ship.
The submarine maneuvered towards Ehime Maru's survivors to attempt a rescue. Weather conditions were unhelpful: Due to these rough seas, the submarine's main deck hatches could not be opened; the only outside access was through the top of the sail via its access trunk. Greeneville, moreover, was still low in the water because it normally took 30 minutes to pump out the remaining water in the ballast tanks after an emergency blow. As the heavy, partially submerged submarine bobbed in the ocean, it also displaced large waves that, in Waddle's opinion, threatened to capsize the life rafts in which Ehime Maru's survivors were gathering.
Waddle decided that it would be safer to stand off the submarine from the group of survivors and wait for assistance to arrive. Ehime Maru's survivors, many of them struggling in the diesel fuel released from their sinking ship, were able to gather on several life rafts that had deployed automatically as their ship sank. Media helicopters also arrived during the rescue operation, and the incident was quickly reported on by major news organizations. Only one of the survivors had a serious injury, a broken clavicle ; he was hospitalized for five days.
Nine other crewmembers were missing, including four year-old high school students and two teachers. None of the nine missing were seen by any of the survivors, Greeneville crewmembers, or USCG personnel after the ship sank.
Two Japanese civilian vessels also joined in the search. No remains of any of the missing crewmembers were discovered. Acknowledging the message, Mori resumed his round of golf, ending it an hour and a half after the first message, an action for which he was later heavily criticized, owing in part to the use of stock photographs taken the previous summer showing Mori enjoying his round of golf.
That same day, Admiral Konetzni removed Waddle as captain of Greeneville and reassigned him to his staff pending the outcome of the accident investigation. Admiral Thomas Fargo, commander of the U.
Pacific Fleet at the time of the incident Two days after the sinking, on 11 February, U. Bush apologized for the accident on national television, stating, "I want to reiterate what I said to the prime minister of Japan: I'm deeply sorry about the accident that took place; our nation is sorry. The public apologies to the Japanese from the highest American officials stirred resentment among American veterans of the Pacific War and their families, as well as among Asian victims of Imperial Japanese aggression and occupation.
Pacific Fleet, Admiral Thomas B. Fargopersonally apologized to families of the Ehime Maru's victims, who had arrived in Hawaii the day before.
Several of the family members asked that Ehime Maru be raised from the ocean floor. The next day, the family members were taken by boat to view the accident site. One Japanese family member publicly referred to Waddle as, "the most terrible criminal of them all. Griffiths' team completed a preliminary inquiry report and submitted it to Admiral Fargo on 16 February.
The court has subpoena power and provides legal safeguards for the affected parties, such as the right to be represented by counsel. The court is a military investigative process and as such has no judge. Instead, a panel of three admirals make up the court and make a report based on the evidence presented in the inquiry. Testimony and other evidence presented in the court can later be used in court-martial proceedings.
Nathmanwho chaired the court of inquiry into the Ehime Maru accident The inquiry panel into the accident consisted of Vice Admiral John B. Nathman and Rear Admirals Paul F. Sullivan and David M.
The three named "affected" parties of the inquiry were Waddle, Pfeifer, and Coen, who were present in the hearing room throughout the inquiry. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Md. We wanted to see that happen. It was important for the public to see that happen. And he did that very well.
Family members of the Ehime Maru victims were seated directly behind Waddle in the hearing room and throughout the inquiry frequently reacted very emotionally and vocally to evidence presented during the hearings.
One of them, Naoko Nakata, wife of one of the missing crewmembers, asked Waddle to "please tell the truth in court. Konetzni testified during the inquiry that Waddle and his crew had rushed into Greeneville's final maneuvers without taking enough time to ensure that no other vessels were in the vicinity. In a statement that was widely reported in the media, Konetzni looked at Waddle and said, "I'd like to go over there and punch him for not taking more time.