Management - Wikipedia
Definition of Line Organization. Line organization, as the name suggests, is an organization wherein a direct vertical relationship. Staff and line are names given to different types of functions in organizations. A " line function" is For example, human resources, accounting, public relations and the legal department are generally considered to be staff functions. Both terms. What are solid line reporting and dotted line reporting in a matrix The solid line reporting relationship is similar to a traditional line management role. The solid.
The specialist works as staff and serves the line officials, by supporting and guiding them, whenever necessary. There are a number of benefits of line and staff organization, in the sense that it gives relief to the line managers and they can concentrate on the implementation of policies and plans.
line-staff organization | Definition, Characteristics, Advantages, & Disadvantages | az-links.info
Moreover, there is a benefit of specialization, as in work is divided between the line and staff executives, and they focus on their respective area. In this type of organization, the decision making is quick and easy, as the expert advice can help in making better decisions. Line organization can be understood as a vertical organization, wherein the superior can give orders to a subordinate, through a direct chain of command.
Line and staff organization is the organization structure, in which there is a normal departmentation of the regular business operations, and there is the functional specialist to perform specialised activities.
While line authority relies on command, line and staff authority is based on command and advise. As we talk about discipline, line organization, is strict, whereas line and staff organization is loose.Line and staff organization in hindi
In a line organization, the line executives are the generalist, who is directly responsible for accomplishing the objectives of the organization. There is centralization of authority in a line organization, and so all the decisions of the organization are taken by the top authority only. Conversely, in line and staff organization, there is a combination of centralisation and decentralisation, in essence, some of the decisions are centrally taken while some are diffused.
Line organization, is good for small corporations, as, in such a structure, the authority is concentrated at the top, which makes it difficult to manage if the number of employees are large.
On the contrary, Line and staff organization, is best suited for large corporations due to the presence of staff specialist, who use their knowledge to advice line managers on complex issues. Plato described job specialization in BC, and Alfarabi listed several leadership traits in AD Mirrors for princes Written in by Adam Smitha Scottish moral philosopherThe Wealth of Nations discussed efficient organization of work through division of labour.
While individuals could produce pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48, pins per day. About the same time, innovators like Eli Whitney —James Watt —and Matthew Boulton — developed elements of technical production such as standardizationquality-control procedures, cost-accountinginterchangeability of parts, and work-planning.
Many of these aspects of management existed in the pre slave-based sector of the US economy. That environment saw 4 million people, as the contemporary usages had it, "managed" in profitable quasi- mass production.
Line and Staff Organization
Salaried managers as an identifiable group first became prominent in the late 19th century. Examples include Henry R. Gantt 's charts s. Duncan wrote the first college management- textbook in In Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became the first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style".
His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance.
The first comprehensive theories of management appeared around People like Henri Fayol — and Alexander Church described the various branches of management and their inter-relationships.
Mooney applied the principles of psychology to management.
Other writers, such as Elton Mayo —Mary Parker Follett —Chester Barnard —Max Weber —who saw what he called the "administrator" as bureaucrat Rensis Likert —and Chris Argyris born approached the phenomenon of management from a sociological perspective. Peter Drucker — wrote one of the earliest books on applied management: Concept of the Corporation published in It resulted from Alfred Sloan chairman of General Motors until commissioning a study of the organisation.
Drucker went on to write 39 books, many in the same vein. Dodge, Ronald Fisher —and Thornton C. Fry introduced statistical techniques into management-studies. In the s, Patrick Blackett worked in the development of the applied-mathematics science of operations researchinitially for military operations.
Operations research, sometimes known as "management science" but distinct from Taylor's scientific managementattempts to take a scientific approach to solving decision-problems, and can apply directly to multiple management problems, particularly in the areas of logistics and operations.
Some of the more recent [update] developments include the Theory of Constraintsmanagement by objectivesreengineeringSix Sigmathe Viable system modeland various information-technology -driven theories such as agile software developmentas well as group-management theories such as Cog's Ladder.