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Mile vs. Kilometer - - A mile and a kilometer are both units of length or distance. Kilometers are used in the metric system and each one is about 6/10 of a mile. Jurisdiction, 10, dunams ( km2 or sq mi). Population. (). • Jurisdiction, 25, Name meaning, House of Meat (Arabic); House of Bread ( Hebrew & Aramaic). Website, az-links.info Bethlehem (/ˈbɛθlɪhɛm /; Arabic: بيت لحم About this sound Bayt Lahm Arabic pronunciation: central West Bank, Palestine, about 10 km ( miles) south of Jerusalem. The distance of each planet from the sun is a determinant of its basic Mercury, named after a Roman god, is 36 million miles away from the.
Its total revenue amounted to 30, akce. The Muslims and Christians were organized into separate communities, each having its own leader. Five leaders represented the village in the midth century, three of whom were Muslims.
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- New Jerusalem
Ottoman tax records suggest that the Christian population was slightly more prosperous or grew more grain than grapes the former being a more valuable commodity. During this period, the town suffered an earthquake as well as the destruction of the Muslim quarter in by Egyptian troops, apparently as a reprisal for the murder of a favored loyalist of Ibrahim Pasha.
Under the Ottomans, Bethlehem's inhabitants faced unemployment, compulsory military serviceand heavy taxes, resulting in mass emigration, particularly to South America. He also noted that a lack of water crippled the town's growth. The population count included men, only. Following the Six-Day War, Israel took control of the city.
InIsrael turned it over to the Palestinian National Authority in accordance with the Oslo peace accord. Israeli soldiers in Bethlehem, Today, the city is surrounded by two bypass roads for settlers, leaving the inhabitants squeezed between 37 Jewish enclaves, where a quarter of all West Bank settlers, roughly , live, and the gap between the two roads closed by the 8-metre high Israeli West Bank barrierwhich cuts Bethlehem off from its sister city Jerusalem.
The siege lasted for 39 days. Several militants were killed. It ended with an agreement to exile 13 of the wanted militants to various foreign countries. Beit Jala and the latter form an agglomeration with Bethlehem. The Aida and Azza refugee camps are located within the city limits.
The old city consists of eight quarters, laid out in a mosaic style, forming the area around the Manger Square. Winter temperatures mid-December to mid-March can be cool and rainy. From May through September, the weather is warm and sunny. Humidity levels are at their lowest in May. Night dew may occur in up to days per year. The city is influenced by the Mediterranean Sea breeze that occurs around mid-day. However, Bethlehem is affected also by annual waves of hot, dry, sandy and dust Khamaseen winds from the Arabian Desertduring April, May and mid-June.
The surviving New Jerusalem texts in Qumran literature focus specifically on the twelve city gates, and on the dimensions of the entire new city.
In 4Q, the gates of Simeon, Joseph, and Reuben are mentioned in this partial fragment. In 5Q15, the author accompanies an angel who measures the blocks, houses, gates, avenues, streets, dining halls, and stairs of the New Jerusalem.
There are two important points to consider regarding the Qumran Essenes. First, we do not have enough scroll fragments to completely analyze their New Jerusalem ideologies. Second, based on the evidence available, the Essenes rebelled against Temple leadership, not the Temple itself.
Their vision of the New Jerusalem looked for the reunification of the twelve tribes around an eschatological Temple. The Babylonian Exile, Antiochene persecutions, and corrupt leadership in Jerusalem incited apocalyptic responses with a vision for a New Jerusalem. In the 1st century CE, an even greater conflict exploded in Iudaea province ; the Roman destruction of Jerusalemas well as the other Roman-Jewish Wars.
Subsequent apocalyptic responses fundamentally altered the New Jerusalem eschatology for Jews and Early Christians. At the core, apocalypses are a form of theodicy. They respond to overwhelming suffering with the hope of divine intercession and a perfected World to Come. Naturally, apocalyptic responses to the disaster followed. This section will first cover 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch. Fourth Ezra and 2 Baruch are important for two reasons. First, they look for a Temple in Heavennot the eschaton.
Second, these texts exhibit the final new Temple texts in Judaism. Jewish texts like 3 Baruch began to reject a restored Temple completely.
However, these texts were deemed to be apocryphal by the Rabbis who maintained the belief in a Third Temple as central to Rabbinic Judaism. The Jewish apocalypse of 4 Ezra is a text contained in the apocryphal book 2 Esdras. The genre of 4 Ezra is historical fictionset thirteen years after the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem. Fourth Ezra is dated approximately in 83 CE, thirteen years after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem. Suddenly, the woman is transfigured in an array of bright lights.
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She transforms into the New Jerusalem being rebuilt. As a bereaved widow she convinced Ezra to apply solace to himself through the image of a New Jerusalem. Fourth Ezra has two clear messages. First, do not grieve excessively over Jerusalem. Second, Jerusalem will be restored as a heavenly kingdom. The apocalypse of 2 Baruch is a contemporary narrative of 4 Ezra. The text also follows the same basic structure 4 Ezra: Job-like grief, animosity towards the Lord, and the rectification of Jerusalem that leads to the comfort of the Job-figure.
Second Baruch is historical fiction, written after the Roman destruction but set before the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians.
Baruch responds with several theological questions for God. Baruch learns that the Lord will destroy the city, not the enemy. Baruch also learns of a pre-immanent heavenly Temple: Two important conclusions come from 2 Baruch. First, the author dismisses hopes for an earthly re-built Temple.
The focus is entirely on the heavenly Temple that pre-dated the Garden of Eden. This may be a device to express the supremacy of the heavenly Temple as a sanctuary built before Eden the traditional location of the earthly Temple.
Second, Baruch believes that restoration for the people of Israel exists in heaven, not on earth. The apocalypse of 3 Baruch is the anomaly among post-revolt New Jerusalem texts. Unlike 2 Baruch and 4 Ezra, the text exemplifies an alternative tradition that lacks a restored Temple.
Like other apocalypses, 3 Baruch still mourns over the Temple, and re-focuses Jews to the heavens. Yet 3 Baruch finds that the Temple is ultimately unnecessary. This move could be polemical against works which afforded the Temple with excessive veneration. In the passage, an angel comes to Baruch and consoles him over Jerusalem: And behold as I was weeping and saying such things, I saw an angel of the Lord coming and saying to me: Understand, O man, greatly beloved, and trouble not thyself so greatly concerning the salvation of Jerusalem.
Yet 3 Baruch is not ultimately concerned with the lack of a Temple. This text goes along with Jeremiah and Sibylline Oracles 4 to express a minority tradition within Jewish literature. In the first Christian apocalypse, the Book of Revelation coincides with this perspective on Jerusalem. The study will now move to early Christian perspectives on the Temple and the apocalyptic response in Revelation.
Jewish Christianity and Jerusalem in Christianity Since Christianity originated from Judaism, the history of Jewish places of worship and the currents of thought in ancient Judaism described above served in part as the basis for the development of the Christian conception of the New Jerusalem. Christians have always placed religious significance on Jerusalem as the site of The Crucifixion and other events central to the Christian faith.
In particular, the destruction of the Second Temple that took place in the year 70, a few decades after Christianity began its split from Judaismwas seminal to the nascent Christian apocalypticism of that time. In the Olivet discourse of the GospelsJesus predicts the destruction of Herod's Templeand promises that it will precede the return of the Son of Mancommonly called the Second Coming. This prophecy of the renewal of Jerusalem by the messiah echoes those of the Jewish prophets.
John of Patmos ' vision of the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation draws on the Olivet discourse and all the historical precursors mentioned above. Based on the Book of Revelation, premillennialism holds that, following the end times and the second creation of heaven and earth see The New Earththe New Jerusalem will be the earthly location where all true believers will spend eternity with God. The New Jerusalem is not limited to eschatology, however.
Many Christians view the New Jerusalem as a current reality, that the New Jerusalem is the consummation of the Body of Christthe Church and that Christians already take part in membership of both the heavenly Jerusalem and the earthly Church in a kind of dual citizenship. It is also interpreted by many Christian groups as referring to the Church to be the dwelling place of the saints.
John of Patmos describes the New Jerusalem in the Book of Revelation in the Christian Bibleand so the New Jerusalem holds an important place in Christian eschatology and Christian mysticismand has also influenced Christian philosophy and Christian theology.
Renewed Jerusalem bears as its motto the words Ad librum Latin: Many traditions based on biblical scripture and other writings in the Jewish and Christian religions, such as Protestantismand Orthodox Judaismexpect the literal renewal of Jerusalem to some day take place at the Temple Mount in accordance with various prophecies.
Dispensationalists believe in a literal New Jerusalem that will come down out of Heavenwhich will be an entirely new city of incredible dimensions. Other sects, such as various Protestant denominationsmodernist branches of Christianity, Mormonism and Reform Judaismview the New Jerusalem as figurative, or believe that such a renewal may have already taken place, or that it will take place at some other location besides the Temple Mount.
It is important to distinguish between "the camp of the saints, and the beloved city" spoken of in Revelation One of the most obvious differences is, the dimensions of the New Jerusalem of Rev.
A large portion of the final two chapters of Revelation deals with John of Patmos' vision of the New Jerusalem. He describes the New Jerusalem as "'the bride, the wife of the Lamb'", where the river of the Water of Life flows After John witnesses the new heaven and a new earth "that no longer has any sea", an angel takes him "in the Spirit" to a vantage point on "a great and high mountain" to see New Jerusalem's descendants. The enormous city comes out of heaven down to the New Earth.
John's elaborate description of the New Jerusalem retains many features of the Garden of Eden and the paradise garden, such as rivers, a square shape, a wall, and the Tree of Life. Description of the City[ edit ] According to John, the New Jerusalem is "pure gold, like clear glass" and its "brilliance [is] like a very costly stone, as a stone of crystal-clear jasper.
The base of the city is laid out in a square and surrounded by a wall made of jasper. It says in Revelation John writes that the wall is cubitswhich is assumed to be the thickness since the length is mentioned previously. It is important to note that 12 is the square root of The number 12 was very important to early Jews and Christians, and represented the 12 tribes of Israel and 12 Apostles of Jesus Christ. In this way, New Jerusalem is thought of as an inclusive place, with the 12 gates accepting all of the 12 tribes of Israel from all corners of the earth.
There is no temple building in the New Jerusalem. God and the Lamb are the city's temple, since they are worshiped everywhere. Revelation 22 goes on to describe a river of the water of life that flows down the middle of the great street of the city from the Throne of God. The tree of life grows in the middle of the street and to both sides of the river. The tree bears twelve kinds of fruit and yields its fruit every month.
According to John, "The leaves of the tree were for healing those of all nations. The fruit the tree bears may be the fruit of life.
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John states that the New Jerusalem will be free of sin. The servants of God will have theosis i. These 12 gates are oriented in groups of three and face the four cardinal directions of the compass needle: There is an angel at each gate, residing in a gatehouse. The 12 gates are each made of a 'single' pearlgiving these the name " pearly gates ". The names of the twelve tribes of Israel are written on the 12 gates.
The New Jerusalem gates may bear some relation to the gates mentioned in EnochChapters 33 - 35, where the prophet, Enoch reports that from each of the four "heavenly gates - opening in heaven - three new gates were seen distinctly separating off, as if the extremities of the whole earth" [were pulling apart each of the four gates into three new ones].
Thus, the four gates were each replaced by three new ones, totaling twelve [i. Laurence translation, Book of Enoch. Note the Lamb of God and the twelve sets of figures, gates, and stones. In the ancient Greek system of measurement, the base of the New Jerusalem would have been equal to million square stadia, 4. If rested on the Earth, its ceiling would be inside the upper boundary of the exosphere but outside the lower boundary.
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