Samuel Adams - Samuel And John Adams | John Adams
Samuel Adams was one of Boston's most prominent revolutionary leaders. His perspective and Photo of Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Geo. Washington, Sam . Samuel Adams was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding .. Joining Adams in the House was John Hancock, a new representative from Boston. Relations had improved between the United States and the United Kingdom, and Adams' role in dividing Americans from Britons was. Samuel Adams - John and Samuel Adams were both significant but their differences in opinion probably made a relationship less likely to.
His newspaper articles and organizational activities helped inspire American colonists to rebel against the British government. Early life and education Samuel Adams was born on September 27,in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of a woman of strong religious beliefs and of a prosperous brewer who was active in local politics.
For this reason Adams was familiar at a young age with Boston politics and politicians. As an adult he would play a strong role in Boston's political resistance to British rule. The young Adams studied Greek and Latin in a small schoolhouse.
He entered Harvard College at age fourteen. When he graduated in he was not sure what his career should be. He did not want to become a brewer like his father, nor did he want to enter the clergy. Although his father loaned him money to start his own business, Adams did not manage his funds well.
As a result he went to work for his father's brewery after all. In he married Elizabeth Checkley. For serveral years Adams struggled in his career. He worked as a tax collector in Boston, but he mismanaged funds and had to pay the difference when his accounts came up short. There seems to have been no charge that he was corrupt, only extremely inefficient.
After his first wife died inhe married Elizabeth Wells in Adams's second wife turned out to be a good manager. His luck had changed, for he was about to move into a political circle that would offer political opportunities unlike any in his past. Political activities Adams became active in politics, transforming himself from an inefficient tax gatherer into a leading patriot. As a member of the Caucus Club, one of Boston's local political organizations, Adams helped control local elections in When Britain began an attempt to tighten control over its American colonies by passing laws such as the Sugar ActAdams was influential in urging colonists to oppose these measures.
The Sugar Act was a tax law imposed by the British aimed at increasing the prices Boston merchants paid for molasses. Urged on by radicals in the Caucus Club, Adams wrote instructions to local representatives attacking the Sugar Act as an unreasonable law. Adams argued that the law violated colonists' rights because it had not been imposed with the approval of an elected representative.
He argued that there should be "no taxation without representation. Eager publishers hurried his writings into print.
Samuel Adams Biography
His ships plied the Atlantic with cargoes of rum, cotton, fish, whale oil, and more. After graduating inhe entered his postgraduate training at the House of Hancock. The French and Indian War was brewing, and once again Thomas was a key military supplier.
Grooming John for an eventual partnership, his uncle sat him down in the ledger room and began to reveal the complex transactions that had turned the House of Hancock into such a powerhouse. Only Thomas and John had access to all the accounts and records. Thomas and Lydia wanted their nephew safely back in America, and John arrived in Boston on October 3,having been away sixteen months.
That winter Thomas, too, fell ill, and it scared him. John Hancock, into Partnership with me having had long Experience of his Uprightness [and] great abilities for Business.
But there was more.
Hancock buried his uncle on the Monday after his death; five days later, his Aunt Lydia handed him a deed to the family mansion, its furnishings, and the Beacon Hill land on which it sat, requesting only that she be allowed to live out her life there. Having always adored his aunt, John was happy to honor her proposal.
All this set up John Hancock as an example of profound paradox when it came to the mounting tension between Great Britain and its colonies. Hancock had everything he could possibly want under the British colonial system. True, a tightening of the customs laws and ever-higher taxes threatened to take some of his wealth away.
Yet, in perhaps even more of a paradox, a decade later the rank and file of rebels in Massachusetts—be they the farmers of Lexington and Concord or the blue-collar tradesmen of Boston, who would readily burn the mansions and businesses of entrenched loyalists — would come to revere the likes of John Hancock, who was as elite and patrician as anyone.
So how was it that John Hancock, merchant king, came to be John Hancock, rebel leader? Few men were further apart in business practices, but each had a personality that thrived on risk.
Samuel senior used his brewery operations to cement ties to local taverns and, in turn, the political types who gathered there, eventually founding a political machine called the Boston Caucus. His next venture was a rural bank outside Boston that circulated its own paper money to farmers based on the value of their lands and crops.
It was a rather creative approach at a time when hard currency, in the form of British sterling, or barter — either one of which was available through the House of Hancock — held sway.
But it ran counter to the established norm, backed by certain merchants under the leadership of Thomas Hutchinson. At their urging, Parliament outlawed the land bank, indicted its organizers — including Samuel senior — and ordered all money bought back with Massachusetts currency. Despite his own financial straits, Samuel senior bankrolled his son so that he could start his own venture, but Samuel junior loaned half the stake to a friend, who promptly lost it; young Samuel then lost the other half on his own.
The son tried his hand in the family brewery, but once again reveled in the political discussions of the taverns more than he attended to business. His father died soon afterward. Political cronies of his father at the Boston Caucus tried to bail him out in by arranging his appointment as Boston tax collector. Within a year, Adams owed the town for taxes that he had either failed to collect or had collected and carelessly allowed to drop into his own pocket. It was certainly not true, however, that Samuel was a laggard when it came to laying the foundation for a political scheme.
And when it came to politics, Samuel Adams did not pull any punches. At the time, the only man in Massachusetts more vociferously against British rule than Samuel Adams was James Otis, a firebrand attorney whose revolutionary role was cut short by mental illness.
Adams and Otis were both fiercely independent, champions of individual liberties, and ardently antiestablishment. What pushed the seeming opposites of Samuel Adams and John Hancock together was money — or, more precisely, the lack of it in the post—French and Indian War period.
This meant that there were no more lucrative government contracts for the House of Hancock or anyone else. In good times, the additional taxes levied by the Stamp Act might have been swallowed, but in this postwar depression, they loomed large and were the catalyst for Samuel Adams to rally opposition to all things British.
Taken at their best, they formed an idealistic corps devoted to self-government; at their worst, they roamed the streets as an unruly mob. Oliver was hung in effigy from an elm tree on High Street that would soon be called the Liberty Tree.
Oliver had long fled with his family, but the marchers broke down the doors and ransacked its contents. Among those who abhorred this violence was John Hancock. Oliver was a fellow merchant and Harvard graduate. His torn interests put Hancock decidedly on the fence. He began to spend more and more time in Boston taverns, including the Green Dragon, headquarters of his Masonic lodge.
This Samuel Adams did in spades with John Hancock. Never mind that Adams was still under scrutiny for his deficiencies as tax collector. In October ofHancock joined British merchants, among whom he was clearly a kingpin, in supporting a boycott of British goods until the Stamp Act was repealed.
For Hancock it was definitely a win-win. With the depressed economy, his business was at low ebb. His remaining credit in London was nil, and he could not have ordered a shipload of British goods if he had wanted to.
Samuel Adams Biography - life, wife, young, son, information, born, college, house, time
Joining the boycott gave him an excuse to unload existing inventories at bargain prices. The boycott was actually good for his business, and it made him look like a hero to the Adams crowd.
Hancock for their daily bread. In the end, the people hurt the most by this boycott were British merchants whose flow of orders from America and accounts receivable from past business took a substantial dip. But now they came to crown Hancock the hero of the hour for championing the boycott. The only casualty of the night occurred when a giant wooden pyramid bedecked with lanterns, which had been erected on the Common, caught fire by accident and burned to the ground.