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We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.
Introduction Studies indicate that family dynamics play an important role with regard to drug use and educational outcomes for youth Allison, ; Bachman et.
One theory developed by Alfred Adler attempts to understand how family matters by considering the order of when a child enters a family Adler, The first born son may have more positive life outcome expectations due to prevailing cultural sentiments, which includes decision making for the family Galanti, For the purposes of this paper, we examined the influence of youth sex and birth order on drug use and education outcomes.
We tested the Adlerian Individual Psychology theory to evaluate the importance of birth order and gender on education and whether or not youth had ever used cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana with a sample of youths living in Santiago, Chile.
Adlerian theory has not been widely applied to diverse populations, and none in South America, therefore this theoretical framework could illuminate how family characteristics impact culturally different populations. One facet of his complex body of work involves the importance of birth order for youth outcomes.
Scholars have shown that both psychological and actual birth order impact individual outcomes. Contrary to these findings, more recent work holds to the strength of birth order as an important factor associated with different outcomes, especially for first-born individuals. For example, Sulloway studied evidence that examined the question of why some individuals—for him revolutionary scientists—rebel and achieve remarkable breakthroughs in their fields i.
However, other scholars have suggested that across many outcomes, variation between siblings may be greater than variation between families, suggesting that much territory remains to be explored to understand the complex family dynamics which do affect life outcomes for individuals Conley, This paper looks at the effects of actual birth order on several variables.
Other more recent studies have examined psychological birth order with college students looking at: However, research has consistently shown that looking at actual birth order offers useful insights.
In his review of birth order articles from toEckstein reported statistically significant birth order studies though not psychological birth-order studies and offers some support for works looking at actual birth order. His review specifically notes that research has shown personality differences among subjects according to four major categories: One study examined undergraduates who were asked to locate their birth order, the birth order of the parents and that of their best friend. The field remains contentious.
Researchers suggest that useful information about youth outcomes can also be understood by examining risky behavior for children, such as drug use and sexual activity. For instance, a recent study, examined how understanding birth order within family dynamics could impact young African American college students: Understanding how birth order and gender function within the context of diverse populations, in this case an international context, can be an important and vital area for researchers to explore.
First, these studies further explain and improve culturally competent approaches for mental health practitioners and others interested in evidence-based work.
Who you should marry based on your birth order
Secondly, such work can contribute to the overall theory and literature on birth order. However, assessing the effects of birth order have had mixed success Solloway, These models were first suggested by Jorden, Whiteside, and Manaster as a way to test for possible birth order effects.
These authors note that models were taken from previous research and consist of three slightly different ways of measuring birth order. Finally, we used Shulman and Mosak as cited in Jordan, et.
For example, this model considers the only child of a small, medium, or large family; then the model continues with first born; second born, middle children, and youngest children each within a small, medium, and large family. We chose the dependent variables, youth substance use and educational outcomes for the following reasons: In the present study we used these three definitions of birth order to account for differing opinions as to the efficacy of birth order studies.
To date, we are not aware of any studies that have tested more than one model of birth order simultaneously and that have examined Latin American populations for understanding how birth ordering and gender may be associated with youth educational outcomes and substance use and misuse.
Participants were recruited from a sample of approximately 1, youth who several years earlier had participated in a study of iron and nutritional status at INTA Lozoff, et al. In —, youth completed assessments that consisted of a 2-hr interviewer-administered questionnaire with comprehensive questions on drug use, drug opportunities, and a range of individual, familial, and contextual variables.
For example, some researchers demonstrated that middle born and last born are much more likely to use drugs and be sexual related crimes than the firstborns [ 2 ]. Other showed that middle born children are more likely to become delinquent than the first or last born children.
Drug Addiction, Criminality and Birth Order | OMICS International
However, this effect is negligible in small families. Birth order data for male and female alcoholic showed that more cases were last born than first born among males [ 3 ]. High rates of criminal acts were found during the year prior to drug treatment, with one third of the group having been convicted of at least one criminal offence [ 4 ].
- Drug Addiction, Criminality and Birth Order
Although addicts vary with regard to the type, amount, and severity of crime they commit. The relationship between crime and drug misuse is often strongest where drug misuse involves the regular and dependent use of drugs such as heroin and cocaine. Crimes involving theft have been found to be a common offence among heroin addicts. In addition, heavy involvement in either alcohol or cocaine use seems to be a sufficient condition for criminality [ 5 ].
While examining the predictors of illicit drug and crime, it was demonstrated that younger age, homelessness, heavier patterns of use and a more prolific criminal justice history were associated with criminality [ 6 ].
Moreover, being male, running away more frequently from home, greater child physical abuse and partner victimization, and more deviant beliefs were all associated with greater illicit drug use [ 7 ].
Moreover, ample of evidences showed the relationship between substance abuse, personality disordersand nonviolent criminality [ 8 ].
Sample The sample of present research includes males. The data was collected from a tertiary drug addiction treatment and rehabilitation centre.