Eumaeus - Wikipedia
Odysseus: Odysseus, in Greek legend, the wise and courageous king of Ithaca who of Autolycus of Parnassus), and father, by his wife, Penelope, of Telemachus. instead the son of Sisyphus and fathered sons by Circe, Calypso, and others. crises in personal relations among the Greeks, and he plays a leading part in. The The Odyssey characters covered include: Odysseus, Telemachus, Penelope, Eumaeus, Eurycleia, Melanthius, Melantho, Calypso, Polyphemus, Circe, the dozens of suitors, the only decent man seeking Penelope's hand in marriage. Calypso was a nymph in Greek mythology, who lived on the island of Ogygia, where, according Calypso receiving Telemachus and Mentor in the Grotto az-links.info Detail from Calypso receiving According to Homer, Calypso kept Odysseus prisoner at Ogygia for seven years. Calypso enchants Odysseus with her singing.
God-fearing, suspicious, and scrupulous, Eumaeus delivers probably the oldest extant example of literary sarcasm when, after Odysseus offers a bargain entailing that he be thrown off a cliff should he lose, he answers: That would be virtuous of me, my friend, and good reputation would be mine among men, for present time alike and hereafter, if first I led you into my shelter, there entertained you as guest, then murdered you and ravished the dear life from you.
Then cheerfully I could go and pray to Zeus, son of Kronos.
The axiom "The god will give, and the god will take away, according to his will, for he can do anything" fairly encapsulates his philosophy. During his master's long absence, Eumaeus acquires from the Taphians a servant, Mesauliuswith his own ostensibly meagre resources. Mesaulius serves as a waiter during Odysseus's first supper back on Ithacain Eumaeus's hut with its owner and his fellow herders. Eumaeus also welcomes Odysseus's son, Telemachuswhen he returns from his voyage to Pylos and Sparta.
When Telemachus returns, he visits Eumaeus as soon as he gets off his boat, as Athena directed him. In Eumaeus's hut is Odysseus in disguise. Eumaeus greets Telemachus as a father, expressing his deep worry while Telemachus was gone and his relief now that is safely back. Homer even uses a simile to reiterate the father—son relationship between Telemachus and Eumaeus. He says, And as a loving father embraces his own son Come back from a distant land after ten long years, His only son, greatly beloved and much sorrowed for Odyssey, Book 16 lines 19—21 With Odysseus sitting beside Eumaeus and Telemachus, the audience is especially aware of this relationship.
During the slaughter of the suitors, Eumaeus assists Telemachus and Odysseus. One of the reasons that they are well matched is that they are both survivors. Odysseus has been absent for 20 years, 10 at the Trojan War and 10 more in his journey home.
According to the most aggressive of the suitors, Antinous, Penelope has persevered against the invaders for about four years 2. Odysseus' perseverance is legendary, especially in the section of the epic involving his wanderings Books Through the use of guile, courage, strength, and determination, he endures.
- The Odyssey
Perhaps the most difficult test of his perseverance as well as his loyalty is the seven years he spends as Calypso's captive, a situation he can neither trick nor fight his way out. Even when the beautiful goddess-nymph tempts him with immortality, Odysseus yearns for home. Vengeance Poseidon and Odysseus are the most noticeable representatives of the theme of vengeance.
In order to escape from the cave of the Cyclops PolyphemusOdysseus blinds the one-eyed giant Book 9. Unfortunately, the Cyclops is the sea god Poseidon's son; Odysseus has engaged a formidable enemy.
Poseidon can't kill Odysseus because the Fates have determined that he will make it home. However, the sea god can help to fulfill his son's wish that Odysseus should arrive in Ithaca late, broken, and alone, his shipmates lost, and his household in turmoil 9. In one of the more controversial sections of the epic, Poseidon takes his frustration out on the Phaeacians whose only offense is following their tradition of hospitality by sailing Odysseus home Odysseus' vengeance is formidable when it is directed toward the suitors and his disloyal servants.
He demonstrates impressive tolerance as he endures, in disguise, the insults and assaults of the suitor Antinous, the goatherd Melanthius, and the maidservant Melantho, for example. Each will die a gruesome death.
The Value of Hospitality
In a surprise attack Book 22Odysseus kills the suitors' leader, Antinous, first with an arrow through the throat; he then kills smooth-talking Eurymachus, the other leading suitor, with an arrow in the liver. Melanthius and Melantho die more slowly after the slaughter of the suitors. Odysseus is avenging the suitors' lack of respect for and the servants' lack of loyalty to his office, his property, and his family.
Reality The theme of appearance versus reality is at the core of the relationship between Athena and Odysseus. Athena is the maven of makeovers. Her most memorable illusions in The Odyssey are disguises for herself or Odysseus. At the beginning of the epic, she appears to Telemachus as Mentes, king of the Taphians, an old friend of his father who has just stopped to visit in Ithaca.
This allows her to encourage the prince and lead him into an expository discussion of the problems in the palace. However, she most famously appears to Telemachus as Mentor, an Ithacan adviser who helps to protect the prince from the murderous suitors and to guide him through his coming of age.
On several occasions, Athena changes Odysseus' appearance, either to disguise him or make him look even more formidable than he normally would. As Odysseus prepares for a banquet in his honor with the Phaeacians 8. When Odysseus returns to Ithaca in Book 13 of The Odyssey, Athena disguises him as an old beggar, even going so far as to shrivel his skin, remove the "russet curls" Of course, Odysseus is no stranger to disguise.
During the Trojan War, he posed as a beggar to enter the city; he also initiated the ruse of the giant wooden horse filled with Greek soldiers, a story retold by the bard Demodocus, not realizing that the hero himself is present, during the visit to Phaeacia 8. The recognition scenes with Odysseus' three family members on Ithaca provide significant and sometimes controversial twists on the theme of appearance vs.
He appears to his son, Telemachus, as a beggar who is visiting the family's pig farm. When they can be alone, Athena alters Odysseus' appearance to something so impressive that the prince wonders if he might not be a god. At the palace, the faithful nurse Eurycleia privately identifies Odysseus when she recognizes a scar on his leg as she bathes him; however, she vows to keep the news to herself.
Whether Penelope recognizes her husband, on the other hand, is a matter of dispute. Although at times she seems to suspect who he is, she does not officially accept him — though he wins the contest of the giant bow Book 21 and slays the suitors Book 22 — until he reveals his knowledge of their wedding bed.
The meeting between Odysseus and his father, Laertes, Book 24 is also somewhat controversial. Some critics argue that Odysseus, in maintaining his disguise, is needlessly cruel to the old man; others conclude that he helps to restore his father to dignity.
Calypso • Facts and Information on the Goddess Calypso
Athena admires Odysseus' craft and guile, saying that even a god would have to be "some champion lying cheat" Deception, illusion, lying and trickery often are thought to be admirable traits in The Odyssey.
It's easy to see why Odysseus is her favorite mortal.Partner Counseling (The Odyssey)
Spiritual Growth One of the questions often asked about a work of literature is whether the principal characters grow or develop as the story progresses. The theme of spiritual growth is central to The Odyssey, especially as it relates to Telemachus and Odysseus. When the epic opens, Telemachus is at a loss as to how to deal with the suitors who have taken over his home and seek the hand of his mother in marriage for primarily political reasons.
His own life is in danger; as a pretender to the crown, he is nothing more than so much excess baggage to the men who would be king. Telemachus needs to grow up fast. He faces various barriers, falters temporarily, but eventually prevails. With Athena's help, Telemachus calls an assembly meeting of Ithaca's leaders and confronts the suitors.