Dissolution of Czechoslovakia - Wikipedia
A look at the Czech and Slovak Republics twenty years after the Velvet Divorce. sample collected in the Czech Republic and Slovakia (N = ). predicted 17% of the variance in belief in God and 30% of religious. Czech-Slovak relations are foreign relations between the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Contents. 1 History; 2 Resident diplomatic missions; 3 See also.
After the Great Schism in Western Christendom—the period when rival popes reigned in Avignon and in Rome—weakened the central authority. The second, more dramatic period of the religious reform movement began with the appointment in of the Czech university scholar Jan Hus to the pulpit at Bethlehem Chapel. Hus combined preaching with academic activities, and he was able to reach the Czech-speaking masses as well as an international audience through his use of Latin.
Dissolution of Czechoslovakia
The university was split in its support of Hus; while Czech scholars tended to agree with his reformist agenda, foreign members followed the conservative line.
Another cause of division was the popularity of the teachings of John Wycliffean English ecclesiastical reformer of the previous century, among the Czech masters and students. Hus did not follow Wycliffe slavishly but shared with him the conviction that the Western church had deviated from its original course and was in urgent need of reform. In the winter of —09, a strong group of cardinals convened a general council at Pisa and elected a third pope or antipopeAlexander Vin the hope of ending the schism.
Wenceslas sympathized with the cardinals and invited the university to join him. The German masters and students protested by moving to LeipzigGermany, where they founded a new university. Hus and his collaborators continued their activities nevertheless.
Neither Wenceslas nor any of the Czech prelates was experienced enough to achieve reconciliation between the church authorities and the reform party, and Bohemia was drawn into a sharp conflict.
When Hus and his friends attacked the questionable practices of papal collectors in Prague, John put Prague under interdict. Hit by the sentence of excommunication, Hus left Prague and moved to the countryside under the protection of his noble friends. In John, acting in harmony with Sigismund who since had been the German kingcalled the Council of Constance German: The aim of the council was mainly to abolish the threefold papal schism but also to examine the teachings of Hus and Wycliffe.
Hus went there hoping to defend himself against accusations of heresy and disobedience. A safe conduct from Sigismund, however, did not protect him in Constance.
Late in November he was imprisoned and was kept there even after John, who had lost control of the council, had fled and been condemned by the cardinals.
In the spring ofHus was called three times before the council to hear charges, supported by depositions of the witnesses and by excerpts from his own writing. Hus refused to sign a formula of abjuration; he was then condemned as a Wycliffite heretic and burned at the stake on July 6.
Council of ConstanceDepiction of the Council of Constance — From then on, the movement, hitherto known as Wycliffite, took the name Hussite, and it grew rapidly. The Hussites reacted emotionally against the Council of Constance, the German king Sigismund, and the conservative clergy. A letter of protest, signed by members of the nobility, was dispatched to Constance in September Hus had not developed a system of doctrine, nor had he designated his successor.
Ideological differentiation set in and resulted in divisions and polemics. The radicals came mostly from smaller boroughs and the countryside. The Germans in Bohemia and in the incorporated provinces remained faithful to the Roman Catholic Churchand, thus, the deep-seated ethnic antagonism was accentuated. The death of the Bohemian king Wenceslas IV in hastened the political crisis. Sigismund, determined to break the Hussite opposition, initiated a period of bitter struggles that lasted more than 10 years.
He had the support of opponents of Hussitism within the kingdom, of many German princes, and of the papacy. Invasions of Bohemia assumed the character of crusades but were successfully repelled by the Hussites, who pulled together in times of danger. The accord, which became known as the Four Articles of Praguestressed that 1 the word of God should be preached freely, 2 Communion should be administered in both kinds i.
In response, the Roman Catholic Church mounted altogether five abortive crusades against the Hussites. Whenever a crusade menaced Bohemia, however, the radical military brotherhoods joined the conservative forces to push back the invader. Meanwhile, a general council of the church opened in at BaselSwitzerland, and determined to find a peaceful settlement.
At a conference at Cheb German: The Hussite envoys reached Basel and opened debate on the cardinal points of their doctrine. The Utraquists ultimately joined forces with the Catholics to defeat the radical Hussites in a fratricidal battle at Lipany in May The final agreement came to be known as the Compacts Compactata of Basel.
The agreement followed the Four Articles of Prague but weakened them with subtle clauses e. After the promulgation of the compacts inan agreement followed with Sigismund, now accepted as the legitimate king of Bohemia.
- Czech Republic–Slovakia relations
- Czechoslovak history
- The Czech and Slovak Republics: A cross-cultural comparison
But he died inand Bohemia was neither united in religion nor consolidated politically. Various forces hindered religious pacification. The Catholic clergy refused to respect the Compacts of Basel because they were not sanctioned by the pope; the Catholics would not accept Rokycana as archbishop of the Hussite church either.
The radical parties, although gravely weakened at Lipany, also stood in uncompromising opposition to Rokycana. The Hussite preponderance Sigismund had no son, and the problem of succession to the Bohemian throne caused a split among the nobility, which had been enriched during the Hussite wars by the secularization of church properties and which had grown accustomed to the absence of monarchy. In January an assembly was held to set up provincial administration for Bohemia; its composition demonstrated clearly the steady rise in the importance of the wealthy barons, who functioned as the first estate.
The lesser nobility, large in number, was considered the second estate. The upper classes recognized the royal boroughs as the third estate but were reluctant to share power with them.
Czech Republic–Slovakia relations - Wikipedia
In the January assembly the political alignments were not identical with religious divisions; nonetheless, the first estate included a powerful Catholic faction, and the second estate was predominantly Hussite.
The assembly did not elect a governor of Bohemia. Instead, in the counties into which Bohemia was subdivided, leagues were organized to promote the cooperation of local lords, knights, and royal boroughs, irrespective of religious orientation.
Several foreign princes challenged this Habsburg claim, but in the estates recognized Ladislas as the legitimate heir to the throne of Bohemia. As he resided at the court of his guardian, the German king and future Holy Roman emperor Frederick IIIthe interregnum was extended.
Apart from political and economic consolidation, George strove for a papal sanction of the Compacts of Basel and for the confirmation of the Hussite leader Rokycana as archbishop. In George decided to act. He seized Prague and appointed Rokycana head of the Utraquist consistory.
This is rather unclear as the detailed reasons are obscured by the fog of the political operation. The pension reform failed due to the left-wing's disapproval and the right wing lacking courage, while the healthcare reform failed due to the hospital lobby and government disunity.
The university and labor market reforms have not even been prepared yet.
A reform making the civil service independent of politicians was approved but did not take effect because the government was afraid of losing influence over state bodies. It says other serious problems of the Czech economy include complicated business rules, widespread corruption and a highly overpriced and slow motorway construction. Experts addressed by Respekt say the Czech economy might grow faster if the country were capable of using EU subsidies more effectively, modernizing the energy sector, attracting foreign investments, and quicker and cheaper building of motorways and modern railways.
Citizenship[ edit ] Since the federalization inCzechoslovakia had divided citizenship, either of the Czech Socialist Republic or of the Slovak Socialist Republic the word 'Socialist' was dropped from both names shortly after the Velvet Revolution.
This distinction, however, had little effect on the citizen's life. On January 1,all Czechoslovak citizens automatically became citizens either of the Czech Republic or the Slovak Republic, based on their previous citizenship, permanent residence address, birthplace, family ties, job, and other criteria. Additionally, people had one year's time to claim the other citizenship under certain conditions. In the case of movement between the Czech Republic and Slovakia, this policy took effect from By contrast, the Czech Republic has formerly prohibited dual citizenship for naturalized citizens, requiring them to give up existing citizenship s prior to receiving citizenship of the Czech Republic.
This requirement could only be waived if giving up an existing citizenship might put the applicant or their relatives in danger of persecution in their homeland, which was not the case of applicants from Slovakia.
Exempt from this law are only those Slovak citizens who obtain a foreign citizenship by virtue of marriage with a foreign national. Some Slovak politicians have speculated in the media about softening the Citizenship Act, but no change has yet materialized as of January People of both countries were allowed to cross the border without a passport and were allowed to work anywhere without the need to obtain an official permit.
Border checks were completely removed on 21 December when both countries joined the Schengen Agreement. Customs union between the Czech Republic and Slovakia remained in place from the dissolution until May 1,when both countries entered the European Union.
Most of them did not re-register their official place of stay during the months before dissolution, and so the question of their citizenship was left open.
The Czech Nationality Act allowed a grant of automatic citizenship only to those born on Czech territory. For others, the right to citizenship required proof of a five-year period of residence, an "unobjectionable" criminal record, significant fees and a complicated bureaucratic process; this reportedly excluded a rather large percentage of Roma.
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Significant numbers of Roma living in Czech orphanages did not have their legal status clarified, and were released from care as adult non-citizens without any right to work or live in the Czech Republic. This and the fact that the languages are very similar made almost all people of both nations passively bilinguali. After the dissolution in s the new TV channels in the Czech Republic practically stopped using Slovak, and young Czech people now have a much lower understanding of the Slovak language.
Also, the number of Slovak-language books and newspapers sold in the Czech Republic dropped drastically. Furthermore, many TV programmes on Slovak TV channels are still dubbed into Czech, some films in cinemas are subtitled in Czech and there are far more Czech-language books and periodicals on the market than before the dissolution.
Young Slovak people still have the same knowledge of the Czech language as their predecessors, if not better. Further, the Slovak Official Language Act passed in did reconfirm the right of Czechs to use their language in all official communication when dealing with Slovak authorities however, the Act explicitly limited the use of Czech in Slovakia only to persons with Czech as their mother tongue.
The same is true about using the Slovak language in the Czech Republic owing to the Administration Procedure Act of Sport[ edit ] The official break-up occurred right in the middle of the World Junior Ice Hockey Championshipswhich took place in Sweden.The Lost World of Communism - Part 2 - Czechoslovakia
The team representing Czechoslovakia was called "Czech-Slovak" starting on 1 January. In international ice hockey tournaments, the Czech Republic took over Czechoslovakia's place in the A-groups, while Slovakia had to start in the lower divisions.
The team had been selected prior to the dissolution. Jaroslav Sakala won two medals in the individual hill events for the Czech Republic at those games along with his silver in the team event. It was after this that the teams were then officially split up into Czech Republic and Slovakia.