Cardiac output and blood pressure relationship to height

cardiac output and blood pressure relationship to height

Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males Stroke volume (SV) decreased in the short group (26 ± 4 ml, P = ) and more so in the tall group (39 ± 5 ml, P vs. tall, P = ). available concerning the relations of stroke volume (SV) and CO to body composition in large assess change in body habitus, blood pressure, and other baseline sure; anthropometric measures, including height, weight, body mass index. Heart Institute, Tel Hashomer Hospital, and Tel Aviv University Medical School. E. RISS, M.D., weight-height index and blood pressure were greater for.

In the study of Iranian subjects, DBP continued to rise between the ages of 25 and 69 Hosseini et al. Other studies have also linked blood pressure variations between individuals to age Lee et al. With respect to gender, DBP was higher in men than women in two large studies of predominantly western European and North American subjects Whitlock et al.

cardiac output and blood pressure relationship to height

In addition to autonomic activity, inter-individual blood pressure differences between healthy subjects whose arterial pressure lay in the normal range, has been linked to gender Wu et al.

However, an interaction between gender and autonomic activity complicates this factor: Gender differences in the time course of the cardiovascular response to orthostatic challenge suggest that men show an earlier sympathetic vascular response than women who demonstrate a more prolonged vagal restraint of cardiac activity early in the response to orthostatic challenge Evans et al. Ethnicity also appears to play a role in blood pressure differences.

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Iranian subjects Wright et al. With respect to interpersonal differences, body mass index BMI has been the variable most widely used to explore relationships to blood pressure Nardo et al. Other studies have reported scaling by height Arvedsen et al. An effort has also been made in the cardiology literature to assess cardiovascular disease incidence by height Paajanen et al.

cardiac output and blood pressure relationship to height

In contrast to cardiology literature though, most physiologic studies of healthy adults do not scale cardiovascular variables, with notable exceptions Arvedsen et al.

When used, scaling is mostly limited to body mass index BMIBSA and height, with few using weight alone as a scaling factor.

In total, the underlying physiological basis for much of the between-subject variability in arterial blood pressure BP remains unexplained in both clinical and healthy populations. From earliest studies Hill and Barnard,controversy concerning sources of between- subject variability in blood pressure when supine and in response to assuming the upright posture have been debated. The controversy and the relative roles of passive gravitational effects and reflex adjustments have been comprehensively reviewed Rowell, This drop in pressure is countered by reflex regulatory responses: Orthostatic hypertension has been ascribed to hyperactive compensatory reflex activity while orthostatic hypotension reflects an inadequate compensatory reflex response Fessel and Robertson, The intricacies of variability contributed by these factors alone and interacting with each other, may account for the relative obscurity of the relationship of blood pressure to weight and height in adults Whyte, ; Arvedsen et al.

More important is the fact that few studies detail cardiac and peripheral vascular components of inter-individual blood pressure variability. The present study was conducted to obtain quantitative information concerning gender, height, weight, BSA and BMI contributions to blood pressure and its cardiac output and vascular resistance components from healthy, young men and women at supine rest and during the steady state response to standing.

All procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments. Study population Thirty-four young adults 19 men and 15 women, 8 Asian, 1 Hispanic, and 25 white participated in 39 studies, conducted over three years. These original studies were designed to document cardiovascular effects of lower body positive pressure LBPP applied to subjects in a standing position Evans et al.

Permission to carry out the above study was obtained from the concerned authorities. The purpose and process of the study was explained to all the participants and school authorities. Age was verified from the school records and various measurements height, weight, blood pressure were taken by using standard techniques. To minimize instrumental and inter observers variationall measurements on a single subject was carried by same investigator and instruments were calibrated from time to time.

For recording of BP efforts were done to allay anxiety and restlessness by recording the in a separate room for boys and girls. It was recorded in lying down position in right upper arm using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer with cuff of appropriate size. Second reading of BP was taken after minutes of the first reading. The readings were noted in a pre-designed and pre-tested performa. Results In present study, association of weight, height and age with BP was explored and tested for their significance amongst school going children.

Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

Correlation coefficients were calculated for both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP with weight, height and age. It was calculated for all children and separately for both boys and girls. Figure 1 Table 1: Association of age was highly significant only with systolic blood pressure, though in girls it was not significant. Except for SBP in boys, the values of the correlation coefficients were in descending order for weight, height and age in both sexes.

Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure.

Figure 2 Table 2: In all these equations, the coefficient of partial regression for weight was positive and had the highest value, varying from 0. But only percent variability in DBP was explained by these three factors.

Figure 3 Table 3: Discussion With objective of finding out presence and strength of association between BP and weight, height and age among children, present study was carried out.

It was found that correlation coefficients were positive and highly significant for weight and height.

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For age, correlation coefficient was significant only in boy SBP. In addition, it was seen that the values of the correlation coefficients were in descending order for weight, height and age in both sexes.

A study from Calcutta also reported the same observations 6. It also gave an idea that everything else remaining constant, an increase in weight would be associated with an increased BP.

Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

Other studies 57 had also observed an association of BP in school children with obesity. For prediction or estimation of the response variable for given values of other explanatory variables, derivation of linear multiple regression equations are necessary. These equations help to assess the relative importance of variables related to response variable. For height, the coefficients of regression were positive in all the equations except for boy DBP. It means that at the same weight and age, the taller children will tend to have higher BP and it would be reverse in case of DBP in boys.

The coefficients of regression for age were negative in all the equations except for boy SBP. It explained that when children at the same weight and height are considered, the older the child the lower would be the BP and the reverse will be for boy SBP.

The phenomenon of tracking demonstrates that the individuals whose BP are initially high, continue in the same track as adults and indicates that the process of development of hypertension sets in at an early age and manifests during childhood.