New Zealand’s Trans-Tasman ties - Christchurch City Libraries
The Australia – New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement ( known as ANZCERTA or the CER Agreement) is one of the most comprehensive . Australia–New Zealand relations, also referred to as Trans-Tasman relations are extremely Whereas none of the major political parties in New Zealand have a policy of encouraging republicanism, the Australian Labor Party has long. Some of Australia's interests are defined by geography, others are not. In the region, Australia and New Zealand recently signed a Closer social, cultural and political foundations of Australia-New Zealand relations run.
In parallel with these two major preoccupations, the Australian Government continues to give high priority to international cooperation in combating terrorism. The attacks on the United States on 11 September and the Bali bombings last October have underlined the grave challenge that international terrorism poses to the way of life that Australians and New Zealanders hold dear.
Following our military contribution to the war on terrorism in Afghanistan, Australia is currently investing effort into two areas. The other is close cooperation with regional neighbours in combating terrorism in South-East Asia and the South Pacific. We have recently appointed an Ambassador for Counter-Terrorism who will help coordinate these activities. We are also discussing new Trade and Economic Agreements to update and modernise the structure of our economic relations with Japan and China.
Australia continues to accord primacy to the multilateral trade liberalisation process. We are a leading participant in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations at the WTO, including as Chair of the Cairns Group of agricultural exporting nations. Our activity is intended to be complementary: Likewise, we see the multilateral trading system as the best way to ensure a level playing field for global trade, through rules that allow us to trade on equal terms.
The Doha Round is also the best means of delivering liberalisation in those sectors that would otherwise be largely immune to reform —especially agriculture. The historical, economic, social, cultural and political foundations of Australia-New Zealand relations run deep, and will always inform what we do together.
The Economic Relationship Between Australia & New Zealand | Brian Easton
The common background of our two countries, the long history of cooperation both bilaterally and on the wider international plane, and the values we share are all part of the strong base on which the contemporary relationship is built. Our political institutions are democratic, securely anchored and open, and our economies are liberal and market oriented. We both enjoy the benefits of a highly skilled workforce, advanced infrastructure, and well-established public health and education systems.
Starting from Gallipoli, Australians and New Zealanders have a strong tradition of working together as allies and partners in various international endeavours. In the recent period, we have worked closely together in East Timor, Bougainville and the Solomon Islands and in dealing with people smuggling. During the 20 years that the Closer Economic Relations CER agreement has been operating, our two economies and business environments have become closely integrated, and the process of integration still continues.
The operation of CER is a model for other free trade agreements. At the policy level, our two countries share unique inter-governmental structures of consultation and cooperation. While in the due course the maturation of the manufacturing sector would have generated the exports, the process was forced upon New Zealand from the mid s, following the structural fall in the terms of trade that occurred then Easton The manufacturing part of the diversification story is a complex one, but it had two major components.The Actual Difference Between Australia and New Zealand (Facebook Banned This Video)
First was added value exporting, in which there was further processing of the commodities already being exported, or coming on stream. The second component of export manufacturing was the more stand alone general manufacturing mainly supplying Australia and Oceania. This second element was an Tasmanization of a process which had been going on within each country.
The same processes means as trans Tasman transport costs come down, and ease of carriage improves we may see a similar concentration into a single Australasian centre. The relocations heartache which rural people have experienced will not stop at the metropolitan centres, but the concentration need not necessarily be in Australia. Indeed the faster growth of New Zealand exports to Australia demonstrates otherwise. From this perspective NAFTA, and indeed CER, may be interpreted as response to underlying economic change rather than as leading it, although I hasten to say it requires political vision to identify and respond to economic change rather than to attempt to suppress it.
Essentially it consisted of a limited list of products which could be traded between the countries with a zero tariff. As humorously illustrated by Lionel Bowen in the opening address to the conference, annual negotiations evolved around identifying products which the interest groups on each side agreed could be traded without harming their interest. At one stage both sides were able to obtain agreement that it would not harm either if seawater were to be traded between the countries, and so seawater was solemnly added to the list of tariff free products.
By the late s the Australians were getting impatient with this process. Moreover because the arrangements focussed on tariffs, it did not prohibit subsidies, and in any case an Australian exporting facing a zero tariff still might be unable to enter the New Zealand market because there was no accompanying import licence.
Out of this impatience grew CER, which was a much broader free trade approach. Whereas in the case of NAFT A there had been a positive list of what could be free traded, in the case of CER the list was of what could not, and from the beginning the negative list contained few items. For New Zealand CER represented an acceptance — by the manufacturing sector in particular — that the future did not lie in supplying a local market, but that to survive they would have to seek larger, dynamic, markets overseas.
That change of perception arose from the confidences of their export successes from the s, not least due to NAFTA. Behind this was a change in the isolationist perception of New Zealand to a realization that New Zealand was a part of a larger world and an appreciation by an increasing proportion of New Zealanders of the benefits of international travel and the variety and quality of international goods and services.
The Economic Relationship Between Australia & New Zealand
We must await a future Sinclair to document the change, but my impression is that between the s and the s New Zealanders became much more outgoing in international terms. The same process was probably occurring in Australia, but except for a few stray manufacturers suffering from New Zealand import penetration under CER, which they saw as subsidised, there was little industry or popular interest in Australia.
Lionel Bowen illustrated this when he recalled the lack of attention to CER in the Australian parliament. There the official concerns were driven by another agenda, although one which had a parallel among New Zealand officials and their associates. In each case CER was seen as a step towards full trade liberalization. Both countries had a record of high and erratic protection towards manufactures, although not so much towards primary products. This was seen to be inhibiting the world orientation of the economy.
Strategists in both countries were arguing that they had to be more outward looking across all economic activity, and not just in the traditional export oriented industries. If so, they argued, barriers to importing discouraged this orientation.
There are numerous arguments to support this view, not all of which are convincing.
For such small countries, the effects of the barriers have as a bargaining tool in global trade negotiations is hardly compelling. There is an argument that the barriers raise costs to exporters, but in my view these costs are over-estimated in quantitative terms, although the quality issues may be underestimated.
The real disadvantage of the cosy environment behind trade barriers is that it discourages quality of service, of responding to buyer choice, of seeking new innovations. In short, protection encourages an economic culture and responsiveness which is antipathetic to the business climate which an outward oriented economy requires. Subsequently, both countries sought closer ties with the United States. Although no such attack occurred until, arguably, 11 SeptemberAustralia and New Zealand both contributed troops to the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
Australia's contribution to the Vietnam War in particular was much larger than New Zealand's ; while Australia introduced conscription New Zealand sent only a token force. An Australian flag flies atop the eastern pylon and a New Zealand flag flies atop the western pylon. A bronze memorial statue of a digger holding a Lee—Enfield rifle pointing down was placed on the western end of the bridge on Anzac Day in The memorial commemorates the shared effort to achieve common goals in both peace and war.
Has the friendly rivalry between New Zealand and Australia been fatally injured?
SinceAustralia, and sinceNew Zealand have been parties to the ABCA interoperability arrangement of national defence forces. The SEATO anti-communist defence organisation also extended membership to both countries for the duration of its existence from to Mawson's Huts at Cape Denison survive to the current day as habitations at the expedition's chosen base.
Both expeditions reported voluminously. Guy Menzies then completed solo crossing in Rowing crossing was first successfully completed, solo, by Colin Quincey in  and then by teams of kayakers in