Algae and fungi symbiotic relationship

Fungi Symbiosis ( Read ) | Biology | CK Foundation

algae and fungi symbiotic relationship

Lichens are a mutualism formed between fungi and various groups of algae. The photobiont and its relationship with the phytobiont are the same as in M. The nature of the lichen symbiosis is not clear. It is generally thought to be mutualistic but this concept is not supported by experimental. Sloth fur has symbiotic relationship with green algae of organisms, ranging from moths, beetles, and cockroaches to ciliates, fungi, and algae.

Two species of Lecanora have been used as food in the barren plains and mountains of Western Asia and Northern Africa. Certain classes of East Siberian inhabitants use lichens as vegetable diet. It is also used for the preparation of chocolates and pastries. It is a food for reindeer and cattle. Species of Cladonia, Citraria, Evernia, Parmelia are used as fodder.

algae and fungi symbiotic relationship

Usnic acid obtained from the Usnea and Cladonia species is used as an antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria. Peltigera canina, the dog lichen is used as medicine for hydrophobia in ancient days. Lobaria pulmonaria, lungwort are used for the diseases of lungs respiratory diseases and T.

Parmelia is useful against epilepsy. Usnea species are good against urinary diseases. Xanthoria sp is used in jaundice etc Some lichens possess anticarcinogenic properties.

The lungwort lichen is used in tanning, in perfumery.

Lichens : Symbiotic Relation Between Algae and Fungi

The cell walls of the fungi of certain lichens contain colouring matters. Species of Rocella and Lecanora yield a most important colouring matter known as Orchil or Cudbear.

algae and fungi symbiotic relationship

This is used in colouring woolen and silk fabrics. It is also used for manufacturing litmus papers which are used in laboratories for acid and base identification.

It is obtained from Roccella montagnei. In Russia and Sweden, lichens are used for the production of alcohol. Some lichens are harmful to industrial products because they cause considerable damage to glass surfaces and marble stones due to etching. Ecological Importance of Lichens: Lichens Contribute to Soil Formation: Lichens thrive in undisturbed sites where nothing else will grow.

Mutualisms between fungi and algae

They grow on rocks, barren soil and the bark of dead or live trees. They are not parasitic when they grow on trees, they just use the tree bark as a home. They enrich the soil by trapping water, dust, and silt.

algae and fungi symbiotic relationship

When lichens die they contribute organic matter to the soil, improving the soil so that other plants can grow there. They release carbonic and oxalic acid which leads to weathering of the rock and it leads to formation of soil. This process is called pedogenesis.

Lichens : Symbiotic Relation Between Algae and Fungi

Due to their association with algae, they are able to convert nitrogen in the air into nitrates, which they need for their growth. Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen impacts the ecosystem because when it rains, nitrates are leached from lichens for use by nearby soil-based plants.

Depending on context, the taxonomic name can be meant to refer to the entire lichen, or just the fungus that is part of the lichen. The alga or cyanobacterim bears its own scientific name, which bears no relationship to either the name of the lichen or the fungus. The fungal partner may be an Ascomycete or Basidiomycete. Next to the Ascomycota, the largest number of lichenized fungi occur in the unassigned fungi imperfecti.

Comparatively few Basidiomycetes are lichenized, but these include agaricssuch as species of Lichenomphaliaclavarioid fungisuch as species of Multiclavulaand corticioid fungisuch as species of Dictyonema.

algae and fungi symbiotic relationship

Other lichen fungi occur in only five orders in which all members are engaged in this habit Orders GraphidalesGyalectalesPeltigeralesPertusarialesand Teloschistales. Lichenized and nonlichenized fungi can even be found in the same genus or species.

algae and fungi symbiotic relationship

TrebouxiophyceaePhaeophyceaeChlorophyceae have been found to associate with the lichen-forming fungi. One fungus, for example, can form lichens with a variety of different algae. The thalli produced by a given fungal symbiont with its differing partners will be similar, and the secondary metabolites identical, indicating that the fungus has the dominant role in determining the morphology of the lichen.

Further, the same algal species can occur in association with different fungal partners. Lichens are known in which there is one fungus associated with two or even three algal species.