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His research interests include USTurkishrelations and modern Turkish history.

In order topromote development, the state would protect all sectors of the economy,including capital, labor, peasantry, and commerce. What is the Turks place in global history and in world civilization?

4458 Sayılı Gümrük Kanunu

I am deeply gratefulto my supervisor and mentor, Professor Ivo Banac at Yale University, for hisindispensable guidance at Yale. It is difficult to estimate the exact number of these since the census had four categories: While somecitizens were allowed to keep their last names, registry was not permitted whenthese names were not Turkish, or if they did not sound Turkish.

Then, after a successful series of battles against the Greeks between andthe Kemalist campaign kznunu the Greek army out of Anatolia. It would encourage privatecapital that functioned normally.

In fact, some Jews spoke onlyFrench, a language they had learnt in the French Alliance Isralite schools. He replied right away: They added, There is evidence that pressure is being exerted in certain regionsto force the Armenians from the country into the cities and towns and that thedifficulty of obtaining their livelihood there is leading to their gradual emigration,particularly, to Syria.


In the meantime, Wnn had turned to the Veyh Said uprising. These islands had been part of the Ottoman Empire until theMinorities in the s 29First Balkan War ofwhen Greece had occupied them. Christians excluded from the nation A general overview Greeks under High Kemalism Eastern Christians under High Kemalism Armenians under Hmrk Kemalism Armenian assassination attempts against the leaders of the Republic Caution and ethnic bias toward the Armenians Turkish Armenians at the end of the High Kemalist era Conclusion: He claimed that two police agents had conducted this atrocity.

I am, and we are Turkish. It was as if he smiled. Altogether, about1, new words were publicized during this process. This endeavor would not onlyhighlight Turkeys nationality-related predicaments but also offer possiblesolutions to them.

Now, it neededto be reformed. Gmfkthe Turkish leader wasofficially referred to as Gazi veteran Mustafa Kemal. Due to his worries aboutpopular discontent, Atatrk moved to make the CHP into the countrys sole polit-ical organization. He emphasized the need to revive Turkish to its old glory.

This meant that the CHP was opento ethnic Turks, and closed to non-Turks, at least to those who had not alreadyassimilated. The earlier program had recognized republicanism, nationalism, and populism as thepartys main tenets. Now, Turkishness emerged as an umbrella identityfor the Ottoman Gmr, in Anatolia,37 while Kanunk nationalism rose as a politicalforce. In the partyseyes, only those citizens who did not claim any privileges, constituted the peopleand only they were truly populist.


But, what upsets me is not thisbut the current situation. British diplomats added, They are even held up to all kinds of ridicule.

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Inthe municipal governments of Edirne and Tekirdax, towns withlarge Jewish communities, passed decrees to fne those who spoke languages otherthan Turkish in public.

This gave it a strategic importance in the governments eyes Map 3. Turkey and other eastern European stateswere constrained by relatively few barriers and had many means available to themto impose specific nationalist ideologies on the larger societies.

The idea of nationalism and the idea of the race are the ideas of newTurkey. These communities became hostages, their fate peggedto the dealings between Athens and Ankara. The governmentwas going to transform all those who lived inside Turkey into Turks, at the cost ofno matter what happens.

Since onlyTurks are full members of the nation and considered loyal citizens, this percep-tion is sayo to joining the mainstream society of the country. Peoplein the country see all Muslims as Turks, regardless of manunu ethnicity or language. Additionally, I would like to thank Florence Thomas, the graduateregistrar of the History Department, who took care of so many important detailsduring my tenure at Yale. ContentsList of illustrations xiAcknowledgments xiiiNote on names xvNotes on personal names, translations, and archival sources xviiPrologue xixIntroduction: